BROAD STRATEGIES CENTRAL TO SSA PROGRAMME
Institutional Reforms - As part of the SSA, the central and the
State governments will undertake reforms in order to improve
efficiency of the delivery system. The states will have to make
an objective assessment of their prevalent education system
including educational administration, achievement levels in
schools, financial issues, decentralisation and community
ownership, review of State Education Act, rationalization of
teacher deployment and recruitment of teachers, monitoring and
evaluation, status of education of girls, SC/ST and
disadvantaged groups, policy regarding private schools and ECCE.
Many States have already carried out several changes to improve
the delivery system for elementary education.
Sustainable Financing - The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is based on
the premise that financing of elementary education interventions
has to be sustainable. This calls for a long -term perspective
on financial partnership between the Central and the State
Community Ownership - The programme calls for community
ownership of school-based interventions through effective
decentralisation. This will be augmented by involvement of
women's groups, VEC members and members of Panchayati Raj
Institutional Capacity Building -The SSA conceives a major
capacity building role for national, state and district level
institutions like NIEPA / NCERT / NCTE / SCERT / SIEMAT / DIET.
Improvement in quality requires a sustainable support system of
resource persons and institutions.
Improving Mainstream Educational Administration - It calls for
improvement of mainstream educational administration by
institutional development, infusion of new approaches and by
adoption of cost effective and efficient methods.
Community Based Monitoring with Full Transparency - The
Programme will have a community based monitoring system. The
Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will correlate
school level data with community-based information from micro
planning and surveys. Besides this, every school will be
encouraged to share all information with the community,
including grants received. A notice board would be put up in
every school for this purpose.
Habitation as a Unit of Planning - The SSA works on a community
based approach to planning with habitation as a unit of
planning. Habitation plans will be the basis for formulating
Accountability to Community - SSA envisages cooperation between
teachers, parents and PRIs, as well as accountability and
transparency to the community.
Priority to Education of Girls - Education of girls, especially
those belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and
minorities, will be one of the principal concerns in Sarva
Focus on Special Groups - There will be a focus on the inclusion
and participation of children from SC/ST, minority groups, urban
deprived children disadvantaged groups and the children with
special needs, in the educational process.
Pre-Project Phase - SSA will commence throughout the country
with a well-planned pre-project phase that provides for a large
number of interventions for capacity development to improve the
delivery and monitoring system. These include provision for
household surveys, community-based microplanning and school
mapping, training of community leaders, school level activities,
support for setting up information system, office equipment,
diagnostic studies, etc.,
Thrust on Quality - SSA lays a special thrust on making
education at the elementary level useful and relevant for
children by improving the curriculum, child-centered activities
and effective teaching learning strategies.
Role of teachers - SSA recognizes the critical and central role
of teachers and advocates a focus on their development needs.
Setting up of Block Resource Centres/Cluster Resource Centres,
recruitment of qualified teachers, opportunities for teacher
development through participation in curriculum-related material
development, focus on classroom process and exposure visits for
teachers are all designed to develop the human resource among
District Elementary Education Plans - As per the SSA framework,
each district will prepare a District Elementary Education Plan
reflecting all the investments being made and required in the
elementary education sector, with a holistic and convergent
approach. There will be a Perspective Plan that will give a
framework of activities over a longer time frame to achieve UEE.
There will also be an Annual Work Plan and Budget that will list
the prioritized activities to be carried out in that year. The
Perspective Plan will also be a dynamic document subject to
constant improvement in the course of Programme Implementation.